1.Introduction

Many types of fungal germs (fungi) live harmlessly in the soil, on food, on our skin and in other places in the environment. However, some types of fungi can thrive and multiply on the surface of the body, to cause infection of the skin, nails, mouth or vagina.
The most common fungi to cause skin infections are the tinea group of fungi. For example, athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a common fungal infection of the toes and feet. Tinea infection also causes ringworm (tinea corporis) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis). It also causes many fungal nail infections. A common fungal infection of the mouth and of the vagina is called thrush. This is caused by an overgrowth of candida which is a yeast (a type of fungus). Small numbers of candida commonly live harmlessly on the skin. However, certain conditions can cause candida to multiply and cause infection. Candida is also sometimes the cause of some fungal nail infections.
Fungal infections of the skin, nails, vagina and mouth are quite common. They are rarely serious and don't usually spread deeper into the body. If you are otherwise healthy and have a normal immune system, it is rare for fungi to affect internal organs. However, fungal infections of the heart, lung, brain and other organs sometimes do occur. These internal fungal infections can be serious and, sometimes, life-threatening. (Harding, D. , 2015)
Antifungal medicines are used to treat fungal infections, which are most commonly found on the skin, hair and nails.
You may be given an antifungal medicine to treat common fungal infections, such as: 
  • ringworm - a ring-like red rash on the skin of the body or scalp
  • Athlete's foot - which affects the skin on the feet, causing it to become red, flaky and itchy
  • Fungal nail infection - which causes the toenails or fingernails to become thickened, discoloured and sometimes brittle, with pieces of nail breaking off
  • Vaginal thrush - which causes irritation and swelling of the vagina and vulve (the female external sexual organs)
  • Some kinds of severe dandruff - which causes flakes of skin to peel on the head (Website team, N. , 2014)

There are several types of anti fungal medicines. They come as creams, sprays, solutions, tablets designed to go into the vagina(pessaries), shampoos, medicines to take by mouth and injections. Most work by damaging the cell wall of the fungus, which causes the fungus cell to die. People who are prescribed an anti fungal injection are usually in hospital and are very ill. (Harding. D. , 2015)
Due to the immense heat in some countries, many diseases are increasing rapidly. Not to forget the growth of fungus on people have also increased. This is one of the main problems in the countries that are very poor. Since it is mostly in the poor countries, the people do not have money to treat the fungal growth. Therefore, they leave it to continue going till it bring infections.

Fungal infections can lead to serious medical conditions when left untreated. Consequently, it is important to know what kind of anti-fungal medicine is most effective to kill fungus. Some of the most common fungal infections are athlete's foot, nail infections, and yeast infections. The fungus group includes molds, yeast, mushrooms, and more. Fungi actually make up a kingdom of that does not fall under categories such as plants, animals, or bacteria.


http://detadoctor.com/parasites/parasitic-diseases/nail-fungal-infection/

Different antifungal agents work in different ways to kill fungus. Two of the most common antifungal agents used in nonprescription antifungal medicines are azoles and allylamines. Azole and allylamine both work by disrupting the fungus' ability to make ergosterol, which is a chemical compound important for the fungus to make a strong cell membrane. Without a strong cell membrane, the fungal cells could become leaky and die. Ergosterol is not in plant or animal cells, which makes it a good compound to target if you only want to kill the fungus without hurting infected plants or animals.So this is what the anti fungals target to affect/destroy in order to kill the fungus

In this science project, we will investigate how efficient different anti-fungal agents are at stopping fungus from growing. Yeast is a type of fungus used in baking and can easily be grown at home. As yeasts grow and reproduce, they make carbon dioxide, which is what makes bread rise. So which anti fungal is the most efficient at stopping yeast from growing?


Allyamine antifungals are characterized by the ability to inhibit fungal squalene metabolism. The biosynthesis of ergosterol requires an enzyme called squalene peroxidase. Squalene peroxide is responsible for catalyzing the first step in ergosterol biosynthesis; inhibition of this enzyme results in disruption of ergosterol synthesis. The inhibition of squalene metabolism is toxic to the fungi because of the buildup of squalene and the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. An example of the allyamine drug is Terbinafine, which is commonly used to treat fungal skin infections.

Azole anti fungal are characterized by the ability to inhibit ergosterol synthesis in fungal membranes. The biosynthesis of ergosterol requires the enzyme lanosterol 14 a-demethylase. This enzyme is needed to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. Targeting this enzyme prevents ergosterol production. Thus, the fungal membrane structure is depleted of ergosterol and the fungus dies. The various types of azole classified drugs include imidazole, triazole and thiazole anti fungals. Azole drugs are broad-spectrum drugs and treat fungal infections of the skin and the mouth. An example of an azole drug is Clotrimazole. (Boundless, 2014)


Terbinafine is an anti fungal agent that is taken by the mouth or skin. Terbinafine acts by interfering with the ability of fungi to make chemicals called sterols that are an important part of the membrane that surrounds fungal cells and holds them together. This weakens the cell membrane. (Omudhome Ogbru, MedicineNet, 2015)

Clotrimazole anti fungal cream is one of the most effective anti fungals. This cream treats a variety of problems, including athlete's foot, jock itch and ringworm. It is considered the best-selling anti fungal cream on the market and has a trusted brand name. In addition to treating the fungal infection, the cream also soothes and moisturises the skin. The ingredients are anti-inflammatory and help ease itching and dry skin. It is an inexpensive cream that is considered both safe and effective. (New Health Guide, 2014)


We will be using three different types of antifungals
  • Terbinafine (Allylamine)
  • Miconazole (Azole)
  • Clotrimazole (Azole)


The independent variable: Type of anti fungal we are using. 

The dependent variable: Yeast that we are using in place for the fungus

The constants are:

  1. The amount of yeast diluted in 100ml of water
  2. The amount of sugar diluted in 100ml of water
  3. The percentage and amount of anti fugal mixed in 50ml of yeast and sugar solution.
  4. The equipment used to conduct the experiment


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