Annex A-Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)


SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE


INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names:Kottaimuthu Lakshaya, Baheera binte Mohamed Ali


Class: S2-08


Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H   


1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research


e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum


[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)


[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)


[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics


[ ] Observational and exploratory research


e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research


e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:


Title: An investigation of the effect of the temperature on the growth of crystals.


A.    Question being addressed


Due to the immense heat in some countries many diseases are increasing rapidly.But not to forget the growth of fungus on people have also increased.This is one of the main problems in the countries that are very poor.Since it is mostly in the poor countries the people do not have money to treat the fungal growth.Therefore they leave it to continue going till it bring infections.

Fungal infections can lead to serious medical conditions when left untreated. Consequently, it is important to know what kind of anti-fungal medicine is most effective to kill fungus. Some of the most common fungal infections are athlete's foot, nail infections, and yeast infections. The fungus group includes molds, yeast, mushrooms, and more. Fungi actually make up a kingdom of that does not fall under categories such as plants, animals, or bacteria.

Different antifungal agents work in different ways to kill fungus. Two of the most common antifungal agents used in nonprescription antifungal medicines are azoles and allylamines. Azole and allylamine both work by disrupting the fungus' ability to make ergosterol, which is a chemical compound important for the fungus to make a strong cell membrane. Without a strong cell membrane, the fungal cells could become leaky and die. Ergosterol is not in plant or animal cells, which makes it a good compound to target if you only want to kill the fungus without hurting infected plants or animals.So this is what the anti fungals target to affect/destroy in order to kill the fungus

In this science project, we will investigate how efficient different anti-fungal agents are at stopping fungus from growing. Yeast is a type of fungus used in baking and can easily be grown at home. As yeasts grow and reproduce, they make carbon dioxide, which is what makes bread rise. So which anti fungal is the most efficient at stopping yeast from growing?



We will be using three different types of antifungals
  • Terbinafine (Allylamine)
  • Miconazole (Azole)
  • Clotrimazole (Azole)
The independent variable: Type of anti fungal we are using.

The dependent variable: Yeast that we are using in place for the fungus

The constants are:

  1. The amount of yeast diluted in 100ml of water
  2. The amount of sugar diluted in 100ml of water
  3. The percentage and amount of anti fugal mixed in 50ml of yeast and sugar solution.
  4. The equipment used to conduct the experiment

B. Hypotheses

Azole antifungals are characterised by the ability to inhibit ergosterol synthesis in fungal membrane. The biosynthesis of ergosterol requires the enzyme lanosterol 14 a-demethylase. This enzyme is needed to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. Targeting this enzyme prevents ergosterol production. Thus, the fungal membrane structure is depleted of ergosterol and the fungus dies. the various types of azole classified drugs include imidazole, triazole and thiazole antifungals. Abledrugs are broad-spectrum drugs and treat fungal infections of the skin or the mouth. An example of an azole drug is Clomtriazole, commonly used to treat athlete's foot, ringworm, vaginal yeast infections and oral thrush.


Allylamine antifungals are characterized by the ability to inhibit fungal squalene metabolism. The biosynthesis of ergosterol requires an enzyme called squalene peroxidase. Squalene peroxidase is responsible for catalyzing the first step in ergosterol biosynthesis; inhibition of this enzyme results in disruption of ergosterol synthesis. The inhibition of squalene metabolism is toxic to the fungi because of the buildup of squalene and the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. An example of an allylamine drug is Terbinafine, which is commonly used to treat fungal skin infections.

Source: Boundless. “Antifungal Drugs.” Boundless Microbiology. Boundless, 09 Jan. 2015. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/antimicrobial-drugs-13/other-antimicrobial-drugs-160/antifungal-drugs-803-8338/

Using this knowledge that we retrieved from the website we make our hypothesis that miconzale and clotrimazole will be more effective than terbinafine.This is due to the fact that azoles are more effective than allyamines.Azoles have the ability to Inhibit ergosterol synthesis in fungal membranes and depleat the fungal membrane structure causing to die.Allyamines inhibit the fungal squalene metobolism which is toxic to fungus thus distrupting the ergosteral synthesis.In contrast to the Azoles Allyamines have only got the ability to distrupt the growth of the fungus.But Azoles have the ability to cause the fungus to die.Thus, we hypothesise Clotrimazole and Miconzale is more effective than Terbinafine.


C.    Description in detail of method or procedures

Materials

  1. Sugar
  2. Yeast
  3. Miconazole (Antifungals)
  4. Terbinafine (Antifungals)
  5. Clotrimazole (Antifungals)
  6. Disposable gloves
  7. Spatula
  8. Measuring boats
  9. Gram balance
  10. 1 beaker
  11. 1 measuring bottle
  12. 2 Bottles
  13. 2 Carbon dioxide sensors
  14. 1 Data logger

Procedure

Part 1:


Setting up the control


Step 1: Measure about 100ml of water(tap water)

Step 2: Measure 2 grams of sugar

Step 3: Measure 2 grams of yeast

Step 4: Pour the 100ml of tap water ,2g of sugar and 2g of yeast into a bottle/beaker and stir well with a glass rod

Step 5 : Take another bottle.

Step 6: Pour 50ml of the solution into the bottle.

Step 7: Place a Carbon dioxide sensor in the bottle.

Step 8: Leave the experiment for 30 minutes for data to be collected.


Part 2:


Setting up the experiments with antifungals


Setting up experiment with Clotrimazole


Step 1: Measure about 100ml of water(tap water)

Step 2: Measure 2 grams of sugar

Step 3: Measure 2 grams of yeast

Step 4: Pour the 100ml of tap water ,2g of sugar and 2g of yeast into a bottle/beaker and stir well with a glass rod

Step 5: Take 2 bottle

Step 6: Pour 50ml of the solution into the bottle.

Step 7: Weigh 2 grams of Clotrimazole and pour it into ONLY 1 OF THE BOTTLES.(do not shake the bottle)

Step 8: Mix the solution well

Step 9: Place a Carbon Dioxide sensor which is connected to data logger into both of the    bottles.

Step 10: Leave the experiment for 30 minutes for data to be collected.


Setting up experiment with Terbinafine


Step 1: Measure about 100ml of water(tap water)

Step 2: Measure 2 grams of sugar

Step 3: Measure 2 grams of yeast

Step 4: Pour the 100ml of tap water ,2g of sugar and 2g of yeast into a bottle/beaker and stir well with a glass rod

Step 5: Take 2 bottle

Step 6: Pour 50ml of the solution into the bottle.

Step 7: Weigh 2 grams of Terbinafine and pour it into ONLY 1 OF THE BOTTLES.(do not shake the bottle)

Step 8: Mix the solution well

Step 9: Place a Carbon Dioxide sensor which is connected to data logger into both of the    bottles.

Step 10: Leave the experiment for 30 minutes for data to be collected.


Setting up experiment with Miconazole


Step 1: Measure about 100ml of water(tap water)

Step 2: Measure 2 grams of sugar

Step 3: Measure 2 grams of yeast

Step 4: Pour the 100ml of tap water ,2g of sugar and 2g of yeast into a bottle/beaker and stir well with a glass rod

Step 5: Take 2 bottle

Step 6: Pour 50ml of the solution into the bottle.

Step 7: Weigh 1 gram of Miconazole and pour it into ONLY 1 OF THE BOTTLES.(do not shake the bottle)

Step 8: Mix the solution well

Step 9: Place a Carbon Dioxide sensor which is connected to data logger into both of the    bottles.

Step 10: Leave the experiment for 30 minutes for data to be collected.

Risk and Safety:

1.    As this experiment involves handling hot water we have to be extra careful when handling the hot water.We should use mittens cloths when handling the water.

2.    As this experiment handles fungal medicine which is highly toxic it may hurt our hands if may damage our skin if they are not used properly.Therefore we should use synthetic gloves when handling the anti fungals


D. Bibliography

What is antifungal medicines?

Antifungal medication. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal_medication

Antifungal medicines . (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Antifungal-drugs/Pages/Introduction.aspx

Antifungal Medicines; Types of Antifungal Medicines | Patient.co.uk. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/antifungal-medicines

Antifungal medicines - Names . (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Antifungal-drugs/Pages/What-is-it-used-for.aspx

Dixon, D. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8263/

Encyclopaedia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/encyclopaedia/a/article/antifungaldrugs

Fungal Nail Infections. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/medications/content.asp?hwid=hw268772

What types of antifungals are there?

Antifungal medicines - Names . (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Antifungal-drugs/Pages/What-is-it-used-for.aspx

Dixon, D. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8263/

Encyclopaedia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/encyclopaedia/a/article/antifungaldrugs

How to choose an antifungal medicines?

How To Choose An Antifungal - The Candida Diet. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.thecandidadiet.com/choosing-an-antifungal.htm

How do antifungals work?

Antifungal medicines . (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Antifungal-drugs/Pages/Introduction.aspx

Dixon, D. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8263/

Ghannoum, M., & Rice, L. (n.d.). Antifungal Agents: Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, and Correlation of These Mechanisms with Bacterial Resistance. Retrieved January 14, 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88922/

Stop motion film; how antifungal medication works and how fungi becomes resistant. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p52EnsLcUEM

What type of antifungal agent (eg. allylamine or azole) do you think will be the most effective at stopping the growth of the yeast?

Result Filters. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15663341

(n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.oregon.gov/oha/pharmacy/therapeutics/docs/ps-2010-02-antifungals-topical.pdf

Why are antifungals used for?

(n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/antifungal-drugs-major-types-functions.html

What are azole antifungals?

Azole antifungals | Drugs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.drugs.com/drug-class/azole-antifungals.html

What are allylamines antifungals?

Allylamines for Ringworm. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/allylamines-for-ringworm-of-the-skin

Antifungal Pharmacology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.doctorfungus.org/thedrugs/antif_pharm.php

DermNet NZ. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.dermnetnz.org/treatments/topical-antifungal.html

How antifungal drugs kill fungi and cure disease?

(n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://wi.mit.edu/files/wi/cfile/programs/teacher/presentations/antifungal_drugs.pdf

How do antifungals work exactly? - General Discussion - The Candida Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.thecandidadiet.com/forum/yaf_postst2647_How-do-antifungals-work-exactly.aspx

Anti-fungal creams: How do they work? - Straight Dope Message Board. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=112970


What are the side effects of antifungals?

How Do Antifungal Medications Work? (2009, July 1). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5142512_do-antifungal-medications-work.html

Antifungal medicines - Side effects and interactions with other drugs . (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Antifungal-drugs/Pages/Side-effects.aspx

ANTIFUNGALS - TOPICAL side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.medicinenet.com/antifungals-topical/article.htm

Antifungal Cream topical : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-61279/antifungal-cream-top/details

Encyclopaedia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/encyclopaedia/ff/article/antifungaldrugs/

No comments:

Post a Comment